Update:  1.9.2018


   Pathophysiology of CVS


1.      The following contractile proteins participate in myocardial contraction:

a.       actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum

b.      myosin, mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

c.       actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin

d.      actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum

e.       troponin and calcium

f.       actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma

2.       Under aerobic conditions, the heart muscle gains energy mainly by:

a.       the beta-oxidation of fatty acids

b.      anaerobic glycolysis

c.       aerobic glycolysis

d.      pentose cycle

e.       glycogenolysis

f.       aerobic glycolysis and glycogenolysis

3.       In myocardium, ATP is used:

a.       exclusively for contraction

b.      exclusively for relaxation

c.       mainly for the transmembrane ion transport

d.      mainly for basal metabolism

e.       mainly for contraction and relaxation

f.       mainly for preserving subcellular structures